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International Trade Law Research
Lee Peoples
Associate Director
Oklahoma City University Law Library

 
 
Background Information
A Basic Guide to Exporting, published by the U.S. Department of Commerce, accessible at:
http://www.unzco.com/basicguide/index.html 
 
Breaking Into the Trade Game: A Small Business Guide, published by the Small Business
Administration, accessible at: http://www.sba.gov/oit/info/Guide-To-Exporting/all.html 
 
Center for International Trade and Investment’s Trade Reference Tools includes a
dictionary of trade terms, INCOTERMS, acronyms and glossary of shipping and
financing terms, accessible at: http://www.citd.org/trade_info/sections.cfm?sid=5 
 
Essien, Victor, “Research in Transnational Business Law,” in Accidental Tourist on the New
Frontier: An Introduction to Global Legal Research, Jeanne Rehberg and Radu D. Popa eds.
(Littleton: Rothman, 1998) p207-230.
 
Folsom, Ralph, et. al, International Trade and Investment in a Nutshell (St. Paul: West, 2000)
OCU Call # K 3943.F64 (permanent reserve).
 
Folsom, Ralph, et. al, International Business Transactions in a Nutshell (St. Paul: West, 2000)
OCU Call # K 3943.W54 (permanent reserve).
 
http://forwarderlaw.com provides information about freight forwarding including a database of
forwarding terms, commentary and cases.
 
Hoffman, Marci, Revised Guide to International Trade law Sources on the Internet retrieved
from: http://www.llrx.com/features/trade3.htm 
 
Incoterms are standard trade definitions most commonly used in international sales
contracts. Devised and published by the International Chamber of Commerce, they are at
the heart of world trade.  Some examples of Incoterms include: FOB (Free on Board),
CIF (Cost, Insurance and Freight), DDU (Delivered Duty Unpaid), and CPT (Carriage
Paid To).
 
International Economic Law Tools for Researchers, a page of the Georgetown University Law
Center, accessible at: http://www.law.georgetown.edu/iiel/research/researchtools.html 
 
Levy, David, Private International Law retrieved from: http://www.asil.org/resource/pil1.htm
     2
http://lexmercatoria.org is sponsored by American and European law schools and a commercial
book vendor.   It provides extensive information about international trade including a
chronological list of trade agreements.  
 
Raisch, Marylin J. and Roberta I. Shaffer, Introduction to International Legal Transactions (New
York: Oceana, 1995) OCU Call # K 7615.4 (3rd
 Floor N).
Schaffer, Ellen G. and Randall J. Snyder.  Contemporary Practice of International Law (Dobbs
Ferry : Oceana, 1997)  Chapters 10 and 11.
 
Seer, Gitelle and Maria I. Smolka-Day, Introduction of International Business Law: Legal
Transactions in a Global Economy (New York: Oceana, 1996) Specifically the following
chapters: Porrata-Doria, Rafael, “United States Regulation of International Trade: Selected
Topics,” and Krieps, Catherine L., “U.S. Regulation of International Trade: A Research Guide.”
OCU Call # KF 390.B84 (3rd
 Floor N).
 
Transnational Law Digest and Bibliography is a large collection of transnational commercial law
resources: http://www.tldb.net/ 
 
Weiler, J.H.H., The EU, the WTO and the NAFTA: Towards a Common Law of International
Trade? (Oxford University Press, 2000) OCU Call # K4601.6 (3rd
 Floor N).
 
Wenger, Jean, International Economic Law retrieved from: http://www.asil.org/resource/iel1.htm 
 
Statistical Information
Stat-USA The Globus and national trade databases contain extensive current and historical data
related to trade.  Accessible on campus only.
 
Country Data (World Bank). This site contains statistical information on poverty, structure of
the economy, prices and government finance, trade, balance of payments, external debt, resource
flows, and key economic indicators, accessible at:
http://www.worldbank.org/data/countrydata/countrydata.html 
 
EUROSTAT is the European network for distributing official statistics, using uniform rules to
harmonize statistical data on all European Union Member States.  Economic indicators include
national accounts, monetary and financial indicators, external trade numbers, prices and producer
price indexes, industrial production, and unemployment, accessible at:
http://europa.eu.int/comm/eurostat/ 
 
Foreign Trade Statistics (U.S. Census Bureau ). Provides links to data on imports and exports
by related parties, profiles of U.S. exporting companies, commodity trade data, export
classification assistance, and to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule, accessible at:
http://www.census.gov/foreign-trade/www/ 
     3
Statistics Division (UN, Department of Economic and Social Affairs). This site is an extensive
list of statistical compilations on economic, political, social, environmental, and developmental
data, accessible at: http://unstats.un.org/unsd/ 
 
STATLinks. Links to Statistical Resources on the Internet (USDA & U.S. Census).  This is
the ultimate guide for anyone with an interest in statistics.  This site provides links to guides to
statisticians, government statistical agencies, universities with statistics programs, journals of
statistics, and computer software to facilitate statistical work, accessible at:
http://cpcug.org/user/bmonsell/statlink.html 
 
Trade and Economy: Data and Analysis (International Trade Association, U.S. Dept. of
Commerce). The Trade Data section of this site provides U.S. Foreign Trade Highlights, foreign
trade monthly data, state export data, and the 10-digit "Harmonized" code defined in the Tariff
Schedule (imports) or Schedule B (exports), accessible at:
http://www.ita.doc.gov/td/industry/otea  
 
Trade Statistics (WTO). The WTO site provides access to data on world merchandise trade by
region and selected economies, world trade of commercial services by region and selected
economies, and selected tables from the WTO’s Annual Report on International Trade Statistics,
accessible at: http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/statis_e/statis_e.htm  
 
Descriptions of databases taken from: http://www.llrx.com/features/trade3.htm 
 
Country Guides
The National U.S.-Arab Chamber of Commerce website provides access to U.S.-Arab
Tradeline, a monthly newsletter, and U.S. Arab Commercial Directory and Economic Guide, a
reference tool providing information doing business in the U.S.-Arab world, accessible at: 
http://www.nusacc.org/ 
 
U.S. Dept. of State Background Notes provides preliminary information on geography, people,
government, economy, foreign affairs, history, and human rights of the world’s countries,
accessible at: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/ 
 
Business Information Service for the Newly Independent States, U.S. Dept. of Commerce is
the site to go to when considering trading with or investing in a Newly Independent State.  The
Department of Commerce supplies country reports, industry reports, customs information,
current U.S. Exports to NIS countries, and sources of finance for business ventures in a NIS
country, accessible at: http://www.bisnis.doc.gov/bisnis/bisnis.cfm 
 
Central and Eastern Europe Business Information Center, U.S. Dept. of Commerce
(CEEBICnet) is a mirror site to BISNIS.  The Department of Commerce also supplies country
reports, industry reports, customs information, current U.S. Exports to CEEBIC countries, and
sources of finance for business ventures in a CEEBIC country, accessible at:
http://www.mac.doc.gov/ceebic/ 
     4
CIA World Factbook provides the following categories of information for every country in the
world: geography, people, government, economy, communications, transportation, military, and
transnational issues.  Accessible at: http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/ 
 
Countries in Africa (Mbendi Information Services).  The country profiles contain information
on taxation, tariffs, intellectual property, financial indicators, privatization, exchange rates,
regulatory framework, and political structure of every African country, accessible at:
http://www.mbendi.co.za/land/af/p0005.htm 
 
Country Fact Sheets (Export-Import Bank of the U.S.).  The site contains guidelines for
financing, loan information, and risk assessment for international business ventures, accessible
at: http://www.exim.gov/pub119.html 
 
Doing Business Guides (Lex Mundi).  Lex Mundi maintains an important legal guide to
international business.  Country-specific legal issues include energy, choice of business structure,
taxation, real estate, resolving commercial disputes, and enforcement of judgments, accessible at:
http://www.hg.org/guides.html.  The law library also has some of these guides in print.  Search
the catalog to see if we have the country you are interested in. 
 
U.S. State Department Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices are
prepared by the Department of State in accordance with section 2202 of the Omnibus Trade and
Competitiveness Act of 1988 (P.L. 100-418), these reports are intended to provide a comparative
analysis of the economic policies and trade practices of countries with which the US has
significant economic or trade relationships.  Reports from 1993-2000 are available, accessible at:
http://www.state.gov/www/issues/economic/trade_reports/ 
 
Region and Country information from the International Trade Administration provides
links to various ITA web sites providing trade and investment information, accessible at:
http://web.ita.doc.gov/ticwebsite/tic.nsf/AF34FA880278BDD58525690D00656C6F/3B884AC0
FF87831F85256926005340B3?OpenDocument 
 
Trade Compliance Center, U.S. Dept. of Commerce allows you to access information from a
variety of government reports: Country Commercial Guides, National Trade Estimate Report on
Foreign Trade Barriers, Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade, Practices, and Trade
Policy Review Summaries.  You can access the individual reports and do a comprehensive
search.  Site accessible at: http://38.232.74.104/cgi-bin/doit.cgi?218:54:1:5  
 
U.S. Commercial Service Country Commercial Guides are prepared by US Embassy Staff
once a year and contain information on the business and economic situation of various countries
as well as the political climate.   Each guide contains chapters on trade regulations, investment
climate, statistics, and market research, accessible at:
http://www.export.gov/marketresearch.html#MarketResearch(Non-Agricultural
 
World Bank Documents and Reports provides access to more than 14,000 documents. There
are documents on a country's economic and work sectors, project documents, and research and     5
working papers. Search the database or browse by country or region, document type, or sector,
accessible at: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/ 
 
 
International Business Etiquette 
International Business Etiquette and Manners, accessible at: http://www.cyborlink.com/ 
 
Culture Savvy, accessible at: http://www.culturalsavvy.com/ 
 
International Addresses and Salutations has address formats and personal salutations, accessible
at: http://www.bspage.com/address.html 
 
United States Information
 
General Resources
Cohen, Stephen D., et al, Fundamentals of U.S. Foreign Trade Policy (Boulder, C.O.: Westview
Press, 2003) OCU Call # HF 1455.C5758.
 
Seer, Gitelle and Maria I. Smolka-Day, Introduction of International Business Law: Legal
Transactions in a Global Economy (New York: Oceana, 1996) Specifically the following
chapters: Porrata-Doria, Rafael, “United States Regulation of International Trade: Selected
Topics,” and Krieps, Catherine L., “U.S. Regulation of International Trade: A Research Guide.”
OCU Call # KF 390.B84 (3rd
 Floor N).
 
Federal Procedure Lawyers Edition, §§ 37:1-1800 “Foreign Trade and Commerce” discusses all
aspects of U.S. law relating to foreign trade including administrative agencies and federal courts. 
OCU Call # KF 8719.F4 and available from the Westlaw database (FEDPROC).
 
U. S. Government Export Portal: http://www.export.gov/
 
Functions of Governmental Organs
Congress has the power to approve or reject treaties as discussed earlier in the course.  Congress
also passes “domestic” laws that affect international trade.  Examples of major legislation that
impact international trade are included below.  The work of congressional committees may also
be relevant to international trade especially the House Committee on International Relations:
http://wwwa.house.gov/international_relations/ and the Senate Foreign Relations Committee: 
 
Executive The President has the power to negotiate treaties which often involve aspects of
international trade.  The President also has the power to enter into executive agreements without
congressional approval.  Many executive agencies that deal with international trade are a part of
the executive branch.  They will be discussed in detail below.
 
Department of Commerce The US Department of Commerce is responsible for encouraging
and assisting the country's international trade and economic growth. It provides services and
assistance to increase America's competitiveness in the world economy, and administers
programs to combat unfair foreign trade competition. Statutes relating to the Commerce     6
department appear in title 15 of the USC.  Administrative regulations appear in title 15 of the
CFR. http://www.commerce.gov 
 
Subdivisions within the Commerce Department
International Trade Administration.  The ITA is charged with assisting and
encouraging U.S. exports and ensuring that U.S. businesses have equal access to foreign
markets.  As such, this web site offers a variety of resources for conducting business
overseas.  Website accessible at: http://www.ita.doc.gov/ The regions and countries page
provides access to many ITA web sites that focus on the leading markets of the world. 
The markets include Africa and the Near East, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and the
Western Hemisphere.  Another service provided by the ITA is the Trade Information
Center which is a comprehensive resource for information on all federal government
export assistance programs.  The information provided ranges from news and current
events, export programs, tariffs and customs information, and country and regional
market information.  The website also contains information on import administration
including suspension agreements, information on antidumping and countervailing duty
cases, statistics, and an import document library.
 
Market Access and Compliance section offers U.S. companies a wide range of
information on accessing foreign markets, website accessible at:
http://www.mac.doc.gov/ One of the featured sections is the Trade Compliance Center
(TCC), which provides the text of trade agreements, foreign market information, market
access reports, and export guides, accessible at: http://www.export.gov/tcc/ 
 
Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) Formerly the Bureau of Export Administration
(BXA), the BIS is a separate bureau within the Department of Commerce, which directs
US export control policy including license applications and enforcement of US export
control laws over a wide range of products, technology and software. The site includes
information on export programs, export administration regulations, denied persons list,
FAQs, and fact sheets to assist with export basics and licensing applications and policy.
Additionally, the BIS is the primary licensing agency for dual use exports (commercial
items that could have military applications). Website accessible at:
http://www.bxa.doc.gov  
 
U.S. Customs Service collects revenue from imports, administers the Tariff Act of 1930, and
enforces customs laws.  The Importing/Exporting section of the site has a good deal of
information about rules and regulations, procedures, statistics and also provides useful forms,
accessible at: http://www.customs.ustreas.gov/ 
 
United States International Trade Commission (USITC) conducts statutory investigations of
claims of domestic injury, antidumping/countervailing duty violations, import relief, and unfair
competition claims.  Major statutory provisions relating to the USITC are found at 19 U.S.C. §§
1330-1341, USITC Rules of Practice and Procedure are found at 19 C.F.R. §§ 200-212.  The
USITC’s website is accessible at: http://www.usitc.gov/ 
     7
Dobson, John M., Two Centuries of Tariffs: The Background and Emergence of the U.S.
International Trade Commission (Washington D.C.: GPO, 1976) OCU Call # HF
1753.D6.
 
United States Trade Representative (USTR) is a cabinet level administration position with the
rank of Ambassador.  The USTR advises the President on international trade policy, administers
all trade policy, is the US representative to the GATT, is responsible for US participation in
international trade negotiations as Chair of the US Trade Policy Committee.  The USTR
publishes Trade Policy Agenda and Annual Report of the President of the United States.  The
section titled “Trade Dress Law” summarizes major trade laws and administrative actions.
Statutes relating to the USTR are found at 19 U.S.C. § 2171, regulations are found at 15 CFR,
chapter 20, and executive orders dealing with the USTR are reprinted in the annotations
following 19 U.S.C. § 2171.  The website of the USTR is accessible at: http://www.ustr.gov/ 
 
State Department’s Office of Legal Advisor for Private International Law is the primary
government department responsible for coordinating U.S. efforts in public international law.  Its
website is useful for determining what private international law agreements the U.S. is a party to. 
Accessible at: http://www.state.gov/s/l/c3452.htm 
 
Judicial
 
Most trade disputes begin with a hearing before an administrative agency.  Two specialized
Federal courts, the Court of International Trade and Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit,
provide appellate relief.  Federal district courts have jurisdiction instead of the specialized courts
if a trade dispute arises under a law other than trade and customs laws.  There is the possibility of
appeal to the United States Supreme Court.   
 
Customs Service Decisions are issued at the request of the parties involved and are an
interpretation and application of customs regulations and laws to specific facts.  Decisions are
binding on all Customs Service personnel and represent the official position of the Department. 
Decisions are available from:
 
Customs Ruling Online Search System (CROSS) contains over 90,000 decisions from 1989 –
present, accessible at: http://rulings.customs.gov/ 
 
Customs Bulletin, Has Customs Decisions from 1968 -  Microforms AA 374.
 
Treasury Decisions Under Customs and Other Laws, 1868-1966, OCU Call # KF 6200.5 (3rd
 
Floor N).
United States International Trade Commission (USITC) makes determinations in
investigations involving unfair practices in import trade, mainly involving allegations of
infringement of U.S. patents and trademarks by imported goods. If it finds a violation of the law,
the USITC may order the exclusion of the imported product from the United States.  The USITC
frequently holds hearings as part of its investigations and studies; the hearings are generally open     8
to the public and the media. More information and dockets and complaints involving hearings
are available from the USITC’s website at: http://www.usitc.gov/ 
United States Court of International Trade Formerly known as the U.S. Customs Court
(1926-1979) and the Board of U.S. General Appraisers (1890-1926), this Court has authority to
decide any civil action against the United States, its officers, or its agencies arising out of any
law pertaining to international trade.  The Court's site provides rules and forms, information
about the court and the judges, and slip opinions from 1999 to present.  Website accessible at:
http://www.cit.uscourts.gov/.
 
Decisions are also found in:
United States Court of International Trade Reports (1983 – present) OCU Call # KF 6695.A252
(3rd
 Floor N).
United States Customs Court Reports (1938-81) OCU Call # KF 6685.A25 (compact shelf 5.2) 
 
United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit  (CAFC).   Created in 1982, this
federal appellate court’s jurisdiction includes customs and international trade law appeals from
the U.S. Court of International Trade and the U.S. International Trade Commission for unfair
competition actions.  Predecessor courts include the Court of Customs and Patent Appeals (1929-
1982), Court of Customs Appeals (1909-1929), and  the Court of Claims (1855-1982). At the
Court’s website you can obtain copies of the  CAFC's opinions and decisions, court rules,
information on recent disposition of cases, and a list of pending cases, accessible at:
http://www.fedcir.gov/index.html 
 
Decisions are found:
Cases Decided in United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit: Trade Cases Adjudged
in the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit (2N)
 
Federal Reporter (2N)
 
Predecessor Decisions:
United States Customs Court Reports (1938-81) OCU Call # KF 6685.A25 (compact shelf 5.2)
 
Cases Decided in the United States Court of Claims (1863-1984) (2N).
 
Descriptions of agencies adapted from: http://www.asil.org/resource/iel1.htm
 
Topics in U.S. Trade Law (adapted from Seer and Smolka-Day)
 
Tariffs and Taxes – Tariffs and taxes are determined first by classifying the export or import
according to the Harmonized Tariff Schedule, or Schedule B as it is called in the U.S.  Then
consult the tariff schedule of the importing country.  The International Trade Administration’s
Trade Information Center website is a useful jumping off point for determining classification and
tariffs.
     9
Harmonized Tariff Schedule Annotated (HTSA) is published by the USITC Office of
Tariff Affairs and Trade Agreements, which has responsibility for revising and amending
the HTSA. The HTSA provides the applicable tariff rates and statistical categories for all
merchandise imported into the United States; it is based on the international Harmonized
System, the global classification system that is used by most other countries to describe
goods.  The schedule and a trade database is available from the website of the USITC at:
http://www.usitc.gov/taffairs.htm 
 
Customs Law and Administration, Ruth Sturm, ed. (New York: Oceana, 2000 no longer
updated) OCU Call # KF 6694.S83.
 
Glick, Leslie Alan, Guide to United States Customs and Trade Laws (Boston: Kluwer,
1991) OCU Call # KF 6659.G59.
 
Mattera, Joseph, Customs Law in Specialized Legal Research (New York: Aspen Law
and Business) OCU Call # KF 240.S69.
 
Serko, David, Import Practice: Customs and International Trade Law (New York:
Practising Law Institute, 1991) OCU Call # KF 6694.S47.
 
Antidumping & Countervailing Duties (AD-CVD) – Dumping occurs when foreign
merchandise is sold in the US at less than the fair market value in its home country accompanied
by injury or threat of injury to a U.S. industry.  Investigations are handled jointly by the
International Trade Administration which determines if a sale has been made.  The International
Trade Commission determines if an injury has occurred.  The Customs service then imposes
antidumping duties.  If exporting states grant subsidies to their domestic producers
countervailing duties may be imposed.  The International Trade Administration determines if a
subsidy has been granted and the International Trade Commission determines if an injury has
occurred.  (adapted from Seer and Smolka-Day)
 
The GATT, The WTO and the Uruguay Round Agreements: Understanding the
Fundamental Changes (New York: Practising Law Institute, 1995) OCU Call # K
4603.G36.  Has several chapters discussing changes to AD/CVD laws.
 
Czako, Judith., et al., A Handbook on Anti-Dumping Investigations (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2003) OCU Call # HF 1425.C93.
 
Pattison, Joseph E., Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Laws (Deerfield, Il: Clark
Boardman, 1984) OCU Call # KF 6708.D8.
 
Lindsey, Bring, Antidumping Exposed: The Devilish Details of Unfair Trade Law
(Washington D.C.: Cato Institute, 2003) OCU Call # KF 6708.D8.
 
Mohrke, Morris E., et al, Effects of Unfair Imports on Domestic Injuries: U.S.
Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Cases, 1980-1988 (Washington D.C.: FTC, 1994).
OCU Call # HF 1425.M6.     10
The Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Laws: Key Legal and Policy Issues: A
Compilation of Articles, Judith Hippler Bello ed. (Washington D.C.: ABA, 1987) OCU
Call # KF 6708.D8.
 
The website of the International Trade Commission, http://www.usitc.gov/, provides
information on anti-dumping and countervailing duty investigations under the
“investigations” heading.  An anti-dumping countervailing duty handbook, guidelines for
hearings, timetables for investigations and administrative orders issues in AD/CVD cases
is accessible from the website.  
  
The United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG)
is particularly relevant to international trade.  It is a uniform law adopted by many
jurisdictions that regulates the international sale of goods.  Pace law school has created
the definitive website for CISG research.  The site provides access to the text of the CISG
agreement, analysis and translations of case law from around the world interpreting the     13
agreement.  CISG Database, accessible at: http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/  A brief
bibliography of CISG materials available in the OCU law library is attached as Appendix
A.
 
Private international law governs the relationships between individuals and business
entities across national borders.  Private international law may be distinguished from
public international law which governs international disputes among sovereigns or
sovereigns and individuals.  Some important organizations involved in private
international law include:
 
UNCITRAL – the United Nations Commission for International Trade Law was created
in part to prepare and promote uniform conventions, model laws and guides on important
international trade issues that States later ratify.  Examples of the work of UNCITRAL
include the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods
(CISG) and the Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral
Awards.  Because UNCITRAL is a UN body it is fairly easy learn about its activities and
to access information about it.  A variety of useful information is accessible from its
website including the text of conventions and model laws and their travaux; CLOUT a
case law database involving UNCITRAL conventions; the UNCITRAL yearbook; a
guide to UNCITRAL research; and, other useful information.  Accessible at:
http://www.uncitral.org/en-index.htm 
 
UNIDROIT – the International Institute for the Unification of Private Laws was
established in 1926 under the League of Nations.  Its purpose was to study the
needs and methods for modernizing, harmonizing and coordinating private
international commercial law between states.  There are currently 59 UNIDROIT
member states.  UNIDROIT has produced international conventions adopted by
member states and model laws used by member states when drafting domestic
legislation.  Some well known accomplishments include the Principles of
International Commercial Contracts, a supplementary source to the CISG and, and
the Model Franchise Disclose Law.  Its website provides access to all conventions
and model laws, information about projects currently underway and other
information, accessible at: http://www.unidroit.org/default.htm 
 
The Hague Conference on Private International Law is an IGO that works to unify
rules of private international law by negotiating and drafting treaties.  Some well
known accomplishments of the Hague Conference include the Convention on the
Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil and Commercial
Matters and several well known adoption conventions.  The Hague Conference’s
website provides the text of conventions, accessible at: http://hcch.e-
vision.nl/index_en.php?act=home.splash 
 
Bill of Lading - is a receipt and contract issued by the carrier who, in exchange for being paid,
promises to deliver the goods.  Bills of Lading are governed by:
 
  Federal Bill of Lading Act, 49 U.S.C.A. § 80101-80116 (governs transferability)     14
  Harter Act, 46 U.S.C.A. § 190-196 (governs form and content)
  Carriage of Goods by Sea Act, 46 U.S.C.A. § 1300-1315 (governs form and content)
 
Letter of Credit – a promise by buyers bank that it will pay to seller the amount of the contract
price conditioned on seller presenting evidence that goods have shipped.  The Bill of Lading acts
as the evidence that goods have shipped.  Letters of Credit are governed by:
 
UCC Article 5
Uniform Commercial Code: Official Text and Comments (St. Paul: West, 2004) OCU
Call # KF 879.527 (reserve).  Also available in the Westlaw database (UCC-TEXT) and
the Lexis library (UCC;UCC).
 
PEB (Permanent Editorial Board) Commentary on the Uniform Commercial Code
(Philadelphia: ALI/NCCUSL, 1991 - ) OCU Call # KF 879.6.P47.    Also available in the
Westlaw database (UCC-PEB) and the Lexis library (UCC;PEB).
 
Uniform Commercial Code: Confidential Drafts (Littleton, CO: Rothman, 1995) OCU
Call # KF 879.518.
 
Searching for cases
UCC Reporting Service: Cases and Commentary (Wilmette, I.L.: Callaghan, 1986 - )
OCU Call # KF 885.U51.  Also available in the Westlaw database (UCCRS-PRO) and
the Lexis library (UCC;UCCRS).
 
Secondary Sources (Browse around KF 890)
Anderson, Ronald, Anderson on the UCC (Rochester: Lawyers Co-Op, 1981 - ) OCU
Call # KF 879.514.
 
See the ABC’s of the UCC series for introductory information on the UCC.  Professor
Harrell authored some of the content.
 
White, James J. and Robert S. Summers, Uniform Commercial Code (St. Paul: West,
2000) OCU 
Call # KF 890.W45.  This is a very well respected treatise on UCC law.
 
International Chamber Commerce – Uniform Customs and Practices for
Documentary Credits (UCP).  It is incorporated by reference into most letters of credit. 
It is also not mandatory law but a restatement of the custom of the industry.
 
I.C.C. Uniform Customs and Practices for Documentary Credits (New York: I.C.C.,
1994) OCU Call # HG 3746.I57.
 
 
World Trade Organization (WTO)/ General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
(GATT)After the Second World War a reordering of international trade became necessary. 
Originally, 50 countries attempted to create the International Trade Organization.  The ITO Draft     15
Charter was incredibly ambitious and attempted to regulate not only trade but other matters
including employment and investment.  Ratification of the ITO Charter never became a reality. 
While the ITO Charter was being negotiated 23 countries agreed to a combined package of trade
rules and tariff concessions which became known as the General Agreement on Tariffs and
Trade (GATT). It entered into force in January 1948.  For almost half a century, the GATT’s
basic legal text remained much as it was in 1948. There were additions in the form of plurilateral
agreements (i.e. with voluntary membership), and efforts to reduce tariffs further continued.
Much of this was achieved through a series of multilateral negotiations known as “trade rounds.”
The biggest leaps forward in international trade liberalization have come through these rounds
which were held under GATT’s auspices.   In the early years, the GATT trade rounds
concentrated on further reducing tariffs. Then, the Kennedy Round in the mid-sixties brought
about a GATT Anti-Dumping Agreement. The Tokyo Round during the seventies was the first
major attempt to tackle trade barriers that do not take the form of tariffs, and to improve the
system. The eighth, the Uruguay Round of 1986-94, was the latest and most extensive of all. It
led to the WTO and a new set of agreements.  A summary of the events of each round may be
found at: http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/fact4_e.htm, where the text of this
paragraph was taken from. 
 
WTO Agreements cover goods, services and intellectual property. They spell out the principles
of liberalization, and the permitted exceptions. They include individual countries’ commitments
to lower customs tariffs and other trade barriers, and to open and keep open services markets.
They set procedures for settling disputes. They prescribe special treatment for developing
countries. They require governments to make their trade policies transparent. And they share a
common three-part structure.  The three part structure used for major agreements is: First, broad
principles will be spelled out; second, extra agreements and  annexes are incorporated; and,
finally, lists of commitments and schedules made by individual countries are listed.  Individual
countries use commitments and schedules to allow specific access to their markets.
 
Over sixty agreements were created at the Uruguay rounds.  A list is available at: 
http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/legal_e/final_e.htm 
Organization of the WTO.  The WTO is run by its member governments. All major decisions
are made by the membership as a whole, either by ministers (who meet every two years) or by
officials (who meet regularly in Geneva). Decisions are normally taken by consensus. The
highest authority is the ministerial conference which meets at least once every two years. More
routine work is supervised by  the General Council (in three guises). Numerous other councils,
committees, working parties and negotiating groups cover the wide range of WTO issues.
1.  The Ministerial Conference.  Meets every two years and can make decisions about
anything under any trade agreement.
 
2.  The next level down is the General Council which also consists of the Dispute
Settlement Body and Trade Policy Review Body. 
     16
3  The Councils are the next level down.  There is a Council for each broad level of trade
the WTO is concerned with.  Examples include the Council for Trade in Goods, Council
for Trade in Services and Council for Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property.  
 
  4.  Each Council area also has subsidiaries.
 
 Organizational Chart: http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/org2_e.htm 
 
Introductory and Background Materials
Jeanne Rehberg, WTO GATT Research, available from: http://www.llrx.com/features/wto2.htm 
 
Schaffer, Ellen G. and Randall J. Snyder.  Contemporary Practice of International Law (Dobbs
Ferry : Oceana, 1997)  Chapters 10 and 11.
 
Weiler, J.H.H., The EU, the WTO and the NAFTA: Towards a Common Law of International
Trade? (Oxford University Press, 2000) OCU Call # K4601.6 (3rd
 Floor N)
 
World Trade Organization’s “What is the WTO,” available from:
http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/whatis_e.htm 
 
Organizational Chart of the WTO:
http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/org2_e.htm 
 
Adamantoppulos, Konstaninos, An Anatomy of the World Trade Organization (Kluwer : London,
2000) OCU Call # K4600.A73 (3rd
 Floor N)
 
Law and Practice Under the GATT, OCU Call # K 4602.1988 (3rd
 Floor N, no longer updated)
 
Leebron, David W., Implementation of the Uruguay Round Results in the United States
(Columbia: New York, 1996) OCU Call # KF 209.C85 (3rd
 Floor N).
 
Jackson, John and Alan Sykes, Implementing the Uruguay Round (Oxford: Oxford University
Press, 1997) OCU Call # K 4603.J33 (3rd
 Floor N).
 
Krueger, Anne O. ed., The WTO as an International Organization (Chicago: University of
Chicago Press, 1998) OCU Call # HF 1385.W78.
 
Moore, Mike, ed., Doha and Beyond: The Future of the Multilateral Trading System
(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004) OCU Call # HF 1379.D64.
 
Guide to GATT Law and Practice (Geneva : World Trade Organization, 1995) OCU Call # K
4602.2 (3rd
 Floor N) An analytical index of the interpretation and application of the GATT
 
Browse the shelves of the OCU Law Library from: JZ 170-173, 199-218; JZ 5185; K 2400,
3973, 4600-02; HF 1385, 1711, 1753.
     17
The Stanford University Libraries have an online collection of historical GATT documents from
1947-1994: http://gatt.stanford.edu/page/home 
 
Finding The Documents.  The GATT/WTO treaties are called “agreements." The agreements
have been negotiated and adopted in sessions called “rounds.” The Uruguay Round, 1986-1994,
was the latest of eight rounds. During and between the rounds, negotiations continue on special
aspects of trade and on bilateral tariff and services commitments. The decision-making bodies of
the WTO also adopt related official documents, such as interpretive notes, decisions,
declarations, acts, understandings, and amendments.  (from:
http://www.llrx.com/features/wto2.htm#II
 
US Sources of the Agreements
The GATT
General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Geneva : GATT, 1986) OCU Call # K 4603.G45 (3rd
 
Floor N).
 
Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations, The Final Text (Washington D.C. : U.S.
Trade Representative, 1994) OCU Call # K4603.2.
 
Law and Practice of the World Trade Organization (Dobbs Ferry : Oceana, 1995 - ) OCU Call #
K 4600.L38 (3rd
 Floor N) This looseleaf set also contains Ministerial Decisions, Declarations,
Understandings, Dispute Settlement Decisions, and commentary.
 
The WTO website has the text of agreements: http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/docs_e.htm 
 
The Westlaw database (GATT) and the Lexis database (INTLAW;GATT) should both be
consulted. Check the current database directory for scope and coverage.
 
Documentation System 
Official WTO documents are assigned symbols by the WTO Secretariat.  The symbols are a
series of letters and numbers that identify and organize the documents.  The first part of the
symbol identifies which collection the document belongs to.  For example, most documents
related to trade in agriculture will belong to the trade in goods collection and be identified with
the letter “G.”  Within document collections a further division is made into classes of documents
sharing a common legal framework called a series.  For example documents produced by the
Committee on Agriculture would be further identified with the letters “AG.”  An additional letter
is used to identify specific types of documents.  For example reports would be identified by the
letter “R.”  Finally, documents are numbered in sequential order.  Symbols are created when all
of these letters and numbers are placed together.
1
  For example, the Committee on Agriculture’s
first report would be identified by the symbol G/AG/R/1.  More information on the
documentation system is available from:
 
The introductory pages of GATT Analytical Index and WTO Analytical Index provide keys that
are helpful in understanding the WTO documentation system.
                                                
1
 Juan M. Mesa, Legal and Documentary Research at WTO: The New Documents On-Line Database, 4 JOURNAL OF
INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC LAW 245 (2001).     18
 
The WTO does not send collections of documents to libraries like the UN, EU or United States
government does.  From 1995 to the present the best source for WTO documents is the WTO
website.  Other paper sources exist for older documents.
 
Official Documents (other than Agreements)
BISD Basic Instruments and Selected Documents  (Lanham, Md.: Bernan Press and WTO,
1998-). All volumes and supplements are searchable in a CDROM co-published by the WTO and
Bernan Press, 1998, and in LEXIS-NEXIS (INTLAW;BISD).  BISD is the official compilation
of documents in paper format. 
 
WTO Online, http://www.wto.org/english/docs_e/docs_e.htm,  this free
database contains documents from 1995 to the present and selected material for the period 1986-
1994, including Uruguay Round documents and a small number of GATT documents.
Documents can be viewed or downloaded in text or image in one or more of the three official
languages. The database is updated daily.
 
Indexes To and Interpretation Of the Agreements 
GATT Analytical Index: Guide to GATT Law and Practice, 6th
 ed., is a guide to 
the interpretation and application on the GATT and subsequent agreements up to January 1995. 
The work contains 43 chapters, each devoted to a GATT Article, containing the text of the
Article, application and interpretation of the Article, drafting history of the Article, other relevant
documents from the preparatory work, early years of the GATT and the Review Session of 1954-
55.  The history of the Uruguay Round is covered in this volume.  A subject index provides
access to the contents.
 
WTO Analytical Index: Guide to WTO Law and Practice. 1st
 ed., provides similar 
material as the GATT Analytical Index but for the period from January 1995 – June 30, 2001. 
Primary content includes the Marrakesh Agreements Establishing the World Trade Organization. 
Also accessible online at: 
http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/analytic_index_e/analytic_index_e.htm
 
Schedules of Tariffs and Services.  Service Schedules are available from the WTO Website
documents section.  The United States Trade Representative maintains a Interactive Tariff and
Trade Database on-line at:  http://dataweb.usitc.gov  Additional print resources for locating
schedules of tariffs and services are available online from:
http://www.llrx.com/features/wto2.htm#II 
 
Dispute Settlement.  The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) was established to
create binding tariff concessions and to liberalize trade between member nations. Twenty three
countries signed the GATT in 1947. Under the GATT disputes were settled by panel decisions.
At the Uruguay Rounds in 1994 GATT member nations created the World Trade Organization
(WTO) and strengthened the dispute settlement  process. After the Uruguay Rounds disputes
were settled by dispute settlement decisions. An introduction to the Dispute Settlement Process is
available from the WTO website,
http://www.wto.org/english/thewto_e/whatis_e/tif_e/disp0_e.htm      19
 
GATT Panel and WTO Dispute Settlement Decisions may be found at:
Law and Practice of the World Trade Organization (New York: Oceana) OCU Call # K 4600
L38 (3rd
 Floor N) Contains the text of Dispute Settlement Decisions with an index providing
subject access to cases.
 
World Trade Organization Dispute Settlement Decisions, Bernans Annotated Reporter (Lanham
MD: Bernans, 1996-2000) OCU Call # K4600.A495 (3rd
 Floor N) library no longer subscribes. 
Each volume contains an overview of dispute settlement activity, a table of countries involved in
disputes, a table of treaty provisions interpreted, and an index.  A cumulative index is also
included.
 
GATT Panel Decisions (1949-1994) and WTO Dispute Settlement Decisions (1995 - present) are
available for free from the WTO website. Dispute Settlement Decisions may be browsed
chronologically, by subject, or by country. The web site also includes decisions of the Appellate
Body and arbitration reports and rules governing the process.
http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/dispu_e/dispu_e.htm 
 
GATT Panel Decisions and WTO Dispute Settlement Decisions are also available from Westlaw
and Lexis. The Westlaw database (WTO-DEC) contains GATT Panel Decisions and WTO
Dispute Settlement Reports from 1995- present. The Lexis databases (INTLAW;WTODS) or
(ITRADE;GTTWTO) contains GATT Panel Decisions. WTO Dispute Settlement Decisions are
found in the Lexis database (ITRADE;WTODS). The Lexis database (INTLAW;BSID) contains
Dispute Settlement Decisions and is especially useful because it is follows the format preferred
by the Bluebook for citing the Decisions.
 
The WTO Dispute Settlement Procedures: A Collection of Legal Texts (Geneva: World Trade
Organization, 1995) OCU Call # K 2400.A48 (3rd
 Floor N).  A collection of the legal texts to the
settlement of disputes under the GATT and WTO.
 
NAFTA
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was implemented on January 1, 1994. It
is designed to remove tariff barriers between the U.S., Canada and Mexico over the next fifteen
years. NAFTA includes two important side agreements on environmental and labor issues that
extend into cooperative efforts to reconcile policies, and procedures for dispute resolution
between the member states.
 
NAFTA was preceded by an agreement between Canada and the United States called the U.S-
Canada Free-Trade Agreement which was effective on January 1, 1989, and is now suspended
due to NAFTA. (from: http://www.law.duke.edu/lib/ResearchGuides/nafta/naftaframe.html
 
Introductory and Background Materials
Basic Info and Online Sources for NAFTA and CAFTA Research (North American Free Trade
Agreement and United States-Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement) by
Francisco Avalos and Maureen Garmon:
http://www.nyulawglobal.org/globalex/NAFTA_CAFTA_Research.htm         20
 
NAFTA Research Guide, Harvard University Law Library:
http://www.law.harvard.edu/library/ref/ils_ref/nafta_research_guide.htm 
 
Folsom, Ralph H., NAFTA in a Nutshell (1999) OCU Call # KDZ944.F653 (perm. res.).
 
Trakman, Leon E. Dispute Settlement Under the NAFTA, a Manual and Source Book (1997)
OCU Call # KDZ525.T73 (3rd
 Floor).
 
Folsom, Ralph H. Understanding NAFTA and its International Business Implications (New York
Matthew Bender, 1996) OCU Call # KDZ 944.A41 (3rd
 Floor N).
 
University of Houston Guide to NAFTA Research: 
http://www.law.uh.edu/libraries/nicole/research/researchguides/nafta.html 
 
Browse the shelves of the OCU Law Library from: JZ 170-173, 199-218, 4850-5490; K 4601;
KDZ 944, 758; HF 1746, 3211.
 
Text of the Agreement
NAFTA Secretariat’s website: http://www.nafta-sec-alena.org
The NAFTA Secretariat’s website also contains links to the various national sections, Rules of
Procedure and Code of Conduct, rulings of bi-national panels on the provisions of the General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA),
and NAFTA dispute settlement decisions.
 
North American Free Trade Agreements (New York: Oceana) OCU Call # KDZ 944.A4 1992
(3rd
 Floor N) In addition to the text of the agreement this looseleaf set also contains
implementing legislation, English translations of Mexico’s economic laws, Rules of Procedure,
Agency Determinations, and customs forms.
 
Westlaw has a separate database, called NAFTA, with the text of the NAFTA agreement and
new documents as they are released from the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. Side
agreements are in the ILM database. In Lexis look in the CANADA, INTLAW, ITRADE and
MEXICO libraries; NAFTA file for important documents, including the text and the final drafts
of the side agreements (called "Supplemental Agreements").
 
Dispute Settlement The principle dispute settlement mechanisms of the NAFTA are found in
Chapters 11, 14, 19 and 20 of the Agreement (available from the Secretariat's web site). Dispute
settlement is administered by the NAFTA Secretariat. The Secretariat is comprised of Canadian,
U.S., and Mexican sections.  Decisions are available from the following sources:
 
Dispute Settlement Decisions and Reports are  available from the websites of the national
sections: http://www.nafta-sec-alena.org/DefaultSite/dispute/index_e.aspx?ArticleID=5   
A summary of the dispute settlement process and the rules that govern it are available from the
Secretariat's website: 
http://www.nafta-sec-alena.org/DefaultSite/dispute/index_e.aspx?articleid=8      21
 
North American Free Trade Agreements (New York: Oceana) OCU Call # KDZ 944.A4 1992
(3rd
 Floor N) The dispute settlement volume contains Binational Panel Decisions.
 
Lexis and Westlaw also provide Dispute Settlement decisions. The Lexis database is
(INTLAW;NAFDEC). The Westlaw database is (NAFTA-BIP).
 
Trakman, Leon, Dispute Settlement Under the NAFTA (New York: Transnational, 1997) OCU
Call # KDZ 525.T73 (3rd
 Floor N).
 
Legislative Information.  The Federal Register is the best place to find regulations
implementing NAFTA from such agencies as the U.S. Customs Service and the International
Trade Administration (Department of Commerce). 
 
There is a bibliography of Federal Register notices in North American Free Trade Agreements
(New York: Oceana) OCU Call # KDZ 944.A4 1992 (3rd
 Floor N). Requests for Panel Review
under the dispute resolution procedures also appear in the Federal Register. 
 
The Canada Gazette contains statutory orders, regulations, statutes and decrees for Canada,
accessible at: http://canada.gc.ca/gazette/main.html
 
Staying Current.  There are many sources to turn to for current information about NAFTA and
issues effecting North American trade in general.  Some relevant sources include:
 
Journals Held by the Library:
NAFTA Law and Business Review of the Americas (periodicals) Library has 1999-2000.
Asper Review of International Business and Trade Law, Library has 1999-2001
Currents : International Trade Law Journal, Library has 1991-2002
The International Trade Journal, Library has 1991-2002
Journal of World Trade, Library has 1988-1997
Maryland Journal of International Law and Trade, Library has 1984-1999.
Minnesota Journal of Global Trade, Library has 1992-2003
Southwestern Journal of Law and Trade in the Americas, Library has 1996-2002
 
International Trade Reporter. Current Reports. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of National Affairs,
1984- Weekly.   OCU Call # HF 3000.I57 (3rd
 Floor N).  Also on Lexis (ITRADE:INTRADE)
and Westlaw (BNA-ITR), this is excellent for following developments on NAFTA. Every week
there is a section devoted to NAFTA, including information on NAFTA activity in Mexico and
Canada.
 
International Trade Daily is available electronically on LEXIS (ITRADE;BNAITD) and
WESTLAW (BNA-BTD). This daily tracks congressional trade action, activities of the
Departments of Commerce, State, etc., along with ITC rulings and decisions in federal and state
courts.
     22
Latin American Regional Reports. Mexico & NAFTA Report,(London, England: Latin American
Newsletters, 1993- )Available on WESTLAW (PAPERSLAT) and NEXIS (NEWS;LAN).
Indexed in Legal Resource Index.  This publisher offers an excellent range of newsletters dealing
with Latin America. They are all of excellent quality and do a good job of covering the
information from the Mexican perspective. 
 
(section on current events adapted from Duke pathfinder).
 
Regional Organizations
There are a number of regional trading organizations that regulating trade in a specific
geographic region.  Some well know regional organizations are: Southern Cone Common Market
Treaty (MERCOSUR); Caribbean Common Market (CARICOM); Association of Southeast
Asian Nations (ASEAN); Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).  The
Hieros Gamos page provides links to the websites of most regional trading organizations,
accessible at: http://www.hg.org/trade.html 
 
The Tufts Multilaterals project provides links to a number of regional trade treaties (select Trade
and Commercial Relations) accessible at: http://fletcher.tufts.edu/multilaterals.html  For more
information about finding treaties access the research guides available at:
http://www.okcu.edu/law/library/guide.asp 
 
 
International Intellectual Property Protection
 
Research Guides
Franklin, Jonathan, International Intellectual Property Law, a very extensive guide that focuses
on resources available electronically.  Accessible at:
http://www.asil.org/resource/ip1.htm#_V._Primary_Sources 
 
Weigmann, Stefanie, Researching Intellectual Property Law in an International Context,
accessible at: http://www.llrx.com/features/iplaw2.htm  This guide is notable for its extensive
links to the domestic laws of foreign countries on intellectual property.
 
International Regimes 
WTO and TRIPS – During the Uruguay Round of WTO negotiations the TRIPS Agreement,
Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, was negotiated.  The Agreement is
currently being implemented.  It defines standards for the protection of intellectual property,
establishes how countries should enforce the standards and provides for dispute settlement of
intellectual property issues between WTO members.  The WTO has devoted a special section of
its website to the TRIPS Agreement.  From this section you can view the text of the agreement,
keep up to date with its implantation, stay abreast of news and current events and learn about
disputes arising under the agreement and view the text of dispute settlements.  Accessible at:
http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/trips_e/trips_e.htm 
 
UN and WIPO – The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is a UN specialized
agency charged with protecting intellectual property and enabling cooperation between     23
international intellectual property agreements.  The WIPO administers a number of international
intellectual property treaties including the TRIPS Agreement.  The WIPO website provides a
wealth of information including the text of treaties it administers; the Intellectual Property
Digital Library (IPDL) which includes patents trademarks, industrial designs and official state
emblems; Collection of Laws for Electronic Access (CLEA) a database of national intellectual
property laws; and a number of other resources, accessible at: http://www.wipo.int/ 
 
Other international and regional organizations are listed and described at: Franklin, Jonathan,
International Intellectual Property Law,
http://www.asil.org/resource/ip1.htm#_V._Primary_Sources 
 
National Legislation 
UNESCO’s portal of national copyright legislation: http://portal.unesco.org/culture/en/ev.php-
URL_ID=14076&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html 
 
WIPO’s CLEA database contains national intellectual property legislation:
http://www.wipo.int/clea/en/clea_tree1.jsp 
 
Weigmann, Stefanie, Researching Intellectual Property Law in an International Context,
accessible at: http://www.llrx.com/features/iplaw2.htm links to the intellectual property laws of a
number of countries. 
 
Secondary Sources
Arup, Christopher, The New World Trade Organization Agreements: Globalizing Law Through
Services and Intellectual Property (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000) OCU Call #
K 3973.A97.
 
D’Amato, Anthony, International Intellectual Property Anthology (Cincinnati: Anderson
Publishing, 1996) OCU Call # K 1401.I585.
 
Herrington, Wayne, Intellectual Property Rights and United States International Trade Law
(New York: Oceana, 2002) OCU Call # KF 2979.H48.
 
Letterman, Gregory, International Intellectual Property Law (Ardsley: Transnational, 2001)
OCU Call # K 1401.L48.
 
Matthews, Duncan, Globalizing Intellectual Property Rights: The TRIPS Agreement (London:
Routledge, 2002) OCU Call # K 1401.M38.
 
Sterling, J.A.L., TRIPS Agreement: Copyright and Related Rights (Luxembourg : Office for
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2000) OCU Call # K 1401.A4.
 
Copyright
Major treaties include:
Universal Copyright Convention 
Berne Convention      24
 
Important secondary sources include:
Nimmer and Geller, International Copyright Law and Practice (New York: Matthew
Bender, 1988- ) OCU Call # K 1420.5.I54.
 
Patent 
Major treaties include:
Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT)
Strasbourg Agreement Concerning the International Patent Classification 
European Patent Convention
Agreement Relating to Community Patents (EU)
 
Trademark  
Major treaties include the Madrid Agreement Concerning the International Registration of Trade
Marks.
 
Important secondary sources include:
Global Trademark and Copyright Series and Global Intellectual Property Series (New
York: Practising Law Institute, library has various years from the early 1990’s – present)
OCU Call # KF 1401.Z9 and KF 3180.Z9.
 
Jacobsen, Nadine, The Madrid Protocol: How it Works & Its Impact on US Trademark
Practice (New York: Practising Law Institute, 2003) OCU Call # KF 3180.Z9.
 
Lackert, Clark W., Madrid Protocol: Mechanics, Strategies and Beyond (Washington
D.C.: National Legal Center for the Public Interest, 2003) OCU Call # KF 3180.Z9L33.
 
Trademark Reporter available from the Lexis database (TRDMRK:TMR)
 
International organizations relevant to international trade and economic law include:
 
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an organization of 184 countries with the stated
goals of working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate
international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce
poverty.  It was created after World War II at a conference at Bretton Woods in the summer of
1944.  Its original Articles of Agreement of the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (Articles of Agreement) provided for replacement of the gold standard with an
adjustment mechanism designed to stabilize currency exchange fluctuations; created a system of
reserves, credits and Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) that countries could use to support the
valuation of their currency; and, created a system of rules to regulate currency transactions.  The
work of the IMF today involves surveillance of economic and financial developments in hopes of
avoiding crises; lending money to poor countries; providing technical assistance with financial
markets; collecting data; and, producing standards and codes of best practices.  The IMF is a
specialized agency of the United Nations and submits an annual report to the UN’s Economic
and Social Council.
     25
The IMF’s website provides a wealth of information about the organization including: primary
legal documents of the organization including the Articles of Agreement, by-laws and rules and
selected decisions and documents; IMF standards and codes; reports and publications arranged
by member country; surveys; working papers; exchange rates and Special Drawing Rates; and, 
current events items, accessible at: http://www.imf.org/external/index.htm 
 
Secondary Sources (search the catalog for the subject: International Monetary Fund)
Gold, Joseph, The Fund Agreement in The Courts (Washington: International Monetary Fund,
1962 - ) OCU Call # K 4430.A495.  This publication reviews decisions of courts and arbitral
awards mentioning the Articles of Agreement.
 
Polak, J.J., The World Bank and the International Monetary Fund: A Changing Relationship
(Washington: Brookings Institution, 1994) OCU Call # HG 3881.5W57.
 
The World Bank (or International Bank for Reconstruction and Development) was also created
at the Bretton Woods Conference and originally intended to act as an intermediary between those
with capital and the countries who needed it after World War II.  Today the World Bank is
composed of the IBRD and the International Development Association (IDA) which loan money
to governments.  The World Bank Group consists of several other organizations including the,
International Finance Corporation (IFC) which makes loans to private individuals, the 
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Association (MIGA) which guarantees investment programs
and the International Center for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID).  The World
Bank is a specialized agency of the United Nations and submits an annual report to the UN’s
Economic and Social Council.  The website of the World Bank Group provides various
information including: data and statistics; documents and reports; current events and news; and,
other information, accessible at: http://www.worldbank.org/ 
 
Secondary Sources (search the catalog for World Bank and its subsidiaries)
Amerasinghe, C.F., Case Law of the World Bank Administrative Tribunal: An Analytical Digest
(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1993) K4451.A48.
 
Bretton Woods: Looking to the Future (Washington: The Commission, 1994) OCU Call # HG
2881.B6744. 
 
Gwin, Catherine, U.S. Relations With the World Bank: 1945-1992 (Washington: Brookings
Institution, 1992) OCU Call # HG 3881.5.W57.
 
James, Harold, International Monetary Cooperation Since Bretton Woods (Washington: IMF,
1996) OCU Call # HG 3881.J33.
 
The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) developed from the
(OEEC) once it completed administering the Marshall Plan for rebuilding Europe after World
War II.  Its current stated purpose is to build strong economies in member countries, improve
efficiency, hone market systems, expand free trade and contribute to development in
industrialized and developing countries.  To achieve these goals the OECD conducts research
and analysis which leads to reflection and discussion among member nations of research     26
findings.  The OECD also produces “soft law” or model laws and codes that member nations
may adopt.
 
OECD’s website provides information about the organization.  To access information users must
register and then may retrieve information through the online library SourceOECD and receive
updates of new information through OECD Direct.  The library has several OECD publications. 
Search the catalog with the term “OECD” for citations. 
 
 
Appendix A 
Bibliography of OCU CISG Titles
 
Bernstein, Herbert, Understanding the CISG in Europe : A Compact Guide to the
1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods
(The Hague ; New York : Kluwer Law International, 2003) Call Number: KJC2096 .B47 2003. 
A concise introductory text for European law students and lawyers.
 
Bianca, C. Massimo, Commentary on the International Sales Law: the 1980 Vienna Sales
Convention (Milan: Giuffre, 1987) Call Number K 3943. 
 
Bridge, M. G., The International Sale of Goods : Law and Practice (Oxford ; New York :
Oxford University Press, 1999) Call Number:  KD1673 .B75 1999.  An English “hornbook” on
international sales it compares the CISG and English law.
 
Enderlein, Fritz, International Sales Law : United Nations Convention on Contracts for the
International Sale of Goods: Convention on the Limitation Period in the International                     
Sale of Goods : Commentary (New York : Oceana, 1992) Call Number:  K1030.4 .E5313 1992. 
A commentary on each article of the Convention.  
 
Ferrari, Franco, et al, The Draft UNICTAL Digest and Beyond: Cases, Analysis and Unresolved
Issues in the U.N. Sales Convention (London: Thomson, 2004) OCU Call # K 1028.3198.
 
Gabriel, Henry D., Practitioner's guide to the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale
of Goods (CISG) and the Uniform Commercial Code (UCC) (New York : Oceana Publications,
1994) Call Number: K1028.3198.A3 G32 1994.  A section by section analysis of the code geared
for practitioners.
 
Gillette, Clayton P. and Steven D. Walt, Sales Law: Domestic and International (New York:
Foundation Press, 1999) Call Number: K 1034.4.  A “paperback reference textbook” that
compares Article 2 of the UCC to CSIG.
 
Honnold, John., Uniform Law For International Sales Under the 1980 United Nations
Convention (Deventer, Netherlands ; Boston : Kluwer Law and Taxation. Call Number:      
K1028.3.U55 H66 1982, 1987, and 1990) Call Number: K 1028.3.  An authoritative text on the
CISG.
     27
Honnold, John, Documentary History of the Uniform Law for International Sales: The Studies,
Deliberations, and Decisions that led to the 1980 United Nations Convention with Introductions
and Explanations (Denver : Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1989) Call Number: 
K1028.3198 .H658 1989.  If legislative history documents are not found in this title consult the
Pace website: http://www.cisg.law.pace.edu/cisg/conference.html or the UNCITRAL site:
http://www.uncitral.org/en-index.htm  
 
Kritzer, Albert H., Guide to practical applications of the UN Convention on Contracts for the
International Sale of Goods (Deventer ; Boston : Kluwer Law and Taxation Publishers, 1989)
Call Number: K1028.3198 .K75 1989.  Considered to the one of if not the most authoritative text
on the CISG.  Discusses legislative history documents, other secondary sources and makes
comparisons to the UCC.
 
Lookofsky, Joseph M., Understanding the CISG in the USA : A Compact Guide to the
1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (Boston ;  The
Hague : Kluwer Law International, 1995) Call Number:  KF915 .L66 1995.  A concise
introductory text for US law students and lawyers.
 
Schlechtriem, Peter, Commentary on the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods
(CISG) (Oxford : Clarendon Press ; New York : Oxford University Press, 1998).  Call Number:      
K1028.3198.A3 K66 1998.  A section by section analysis of the CISG from a comparative law
perspective. 
 
Review of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG) 2000-2001
(New York : Kluwer Law International, 2002).  Call Number: K1028.3198 .R48 2002.  A
compilation of recent scholarly articles on the CISG.
 
The Convention for the International Sale of Goods : a Handbook of Basic Materials, ed. by
Daniel Barstow Magraw and Reed R. Kathrein (Washington, DC : American Bar Association,
Section of International Law and Practice, 1990).  Call Number: K1028.3198 .C67 1990. 
Prepared by the ABA section on international law as a practitioners desk tool.
 
Transfer of Ownership in International Trade, ed. Ziegler, Alexander von et. al. (New York :
Kluwer, 1999) Call Number: K 1036.T73.  Presents an in depth analysis of legal issues arising
from transfer of ownership in 19 countries and discusses how the CISG relates. 
 
Retention of Title: A Practical Guide to Nineteen National Legislations (Paris : ICC Publishing,
1989) Call Number: K 1037.R47.  Discusses how Article 64 of the CISG deals with retention of
title issues. 

 

 
This guide is part of the OCU Law Library series of Research Guides and Pathfinders.
Additional copies and future updated versions are available at:
http://www.okcu.edu/law/lawlib/library_researchguides.html 
 
 
 
© 2004 Lee Peoples 
Last modified: 3/21/07 

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